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托福语法考试从属连词及真题要点解析

来源:: 魁网考试培训网 时间:2010-06-11 15:57
托福语法考试从属连词及真题要点解析 复合句是TOEEL考题的基本句子结构,因而连接主句和从句的连接词就成为重要的命题焦点。TOEEL常考的从属连词分三类:(1)关系代词( that, which ,what who. Whose) (2) 关系副词(where when why how) (3) 状语从句连接词 (where, when, if, though, because) 有关从属连词的试题大部分集中在Structure (1-15题中) 掌握命题规律,这类题目并不复杂。从属连词常考题型及解题要点

托福语法考试从属连词及真题要点解析
  复合句是TOEEL考题的基本句子结构,因而连接主句和从句的连接词就成为重要的命题焦点。TOEEL常考的从属连词分三类:(1)关系代词( that, which ,what who. Whose) (2) 关系副词(where when why how) (3) 状语从句连接词 (where, when, if, though, because…) 有关从属连词的试题大部分集中在Structure (1-15题中) 掌握命题规律,这类题目并不复杂。从属连词常考题型及解题要点 1. 主句与从句之间必须有从属连词
  全真例题分析
  (1)The spiral threads of a spider*s web have a sticky substance on them —— insects.
  (A) traps
  (B) trap its
  (C) which traps
  (D) which it traps (92.1)
  [答案] C 定语从句关系代词which引导从句,且在从句中作主语。
  (2)Angiosperms inhabit relatively diverse environments and may be found —— higher plants can survive.
  (A) there
  (B) wherever
  (C) somewhere
  (D) then (92.5)
  [答案] B 空格前后为两个完整的句子,这里应填入连接词联系主从两句。四个选择只有wherever是连词,引导地点状语从句。
  (3)Duke Wellington was a composer. Conductor, and pianist —— ranked as one of the greatest of all jazz figures.
  (A) him
  (B) although
  (C) or
  (D) who (92.10)
  [答案] D 关系代词who引导定语从句,并作从句的主语。
  (4)——。 Some of the Earth*s interior heat escapes to the surface.
  (A) A volcano erupts
  (B) A volcano whether erupts
  (C) A volcano erupts it
  (D) If a volcano erupts (93.5)
  [答案] D 从属连词引导条件状语从句。
  2. 关系代词 who与which混淆错用
  解题要点:在written Expression (16-40题)中的四个选择答案中出现who 或者which,应确认它所指代的是人还是物。
  全直例题分析
  (1)Fossil remains indicate that squidlike creatures called belemnites swam in the sea who covered the North American continent 70 million years ago. (94.5)
  [答案] C 关系代词who指代的是sea,因此应用指物的which或that.
  (2)Vaccines for some rare diseases are given only to persons which risk exposure to the disease. (93.1)
  [答案] B 关系代词which指代前面的persons,应改为人称关系代词who.
  (3)Anne Elizabeth McDowell is best remembered for a weekly journal, the Woman*s Advocate, who she launched in January 1855. (91.8)
  [答案] D 关系代词who指代杂志the woman*s Advocate,故应改为which.
  (4) The attorney general of the United States advises the President on any questions of law who may arise in the conduct of administrative affairs. (90.10)
  [答案] B 关系代词who指代前文的questions of law,故应改为which或that.
  3. 介词+关系代词which结构
  解题要点 介词+which作用相当于一个关系副词,在从句作状语。可表示时间(=when) ,地点(= where) ,原因(=why)等等。
  全真例题分析
  (1) In reorganizing the curriculum of Mt. Holyoke College in the late 1800*s Elizabeth Mead laid the foundation —— the modern college rests.
  (A) is which
  (B) on which
  (C) which is on
  (D) on it (91.1)
  [答案] B on which 指代on the foundation ,作用相当于一个表示地点的关系副词。
  (2) A circuit may be defined as a closed path —— electricity can How.
  (A) through it
  (B) through which
  (C) that is through
  (D) there goes through (93.3)
  [答案] B through which 指代through the circuit, 作用相当于一个关系副词,而介词through才能准确地表达句子的含义。
  (3) The extent of the harmful effect of locoweeds on animals depends on the soil —— the plants grow.
  (A) which
  (B) which in
  (C) in which
  (D) in (90.5)
  [答案] C in which = where
  (4) Adhesives, such as glue, tape and gum, vary with the purpose —— intended.
  (A) they were for
  (B) for they were
  (C) which were they
  (D) for which they were (93.10)
  [答案] D for which指代for the purpose.
  4. What 引导的名词性从句 解题要点:what兼先行词和关系代词双重身份,即what = the thing (things) that…。因此考生应特别注意,what既已包含先行词在内,它的前面就不应该再出现先行中心名词。What 与that 的区分是TOEEL常考题目
  全真例题分析
  (1) During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became —— is now Indiana and Ohio.
  (A) there
  (B) where
  (C) that
  (D) what (93.5)
  [答案] D what = the area that.What所指代的是地点、位置。然而,此句却不可选择(B)where.因为关系副词where不能作从句的主语。只有what即是先行词又是关系代词。
  (2) The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on —— best in its climate and soil.
  (A) it grows
  (B) what grows
  (C) does it grow
  (D) what does grow (90.1)
  [答案] B what grows = the thing that grows…另请注意:介词后面通常不能接that引导的从句,但可接what引导的名词性从句。
  (3) A hinge joint is —— permits the forward and backward movement of a door.
  (A) the
  (B) what
  (C) those
  (D) whose (88.10)
  [答案] B what = the thing that…
  (4) Essentially, a theory is an abstract. Symbolic representation of —— reality.
  (A) what it is conceived
  (B) that is conceived
  (C) what is conceived to be
  (D) that is being conceived of (89.5)
  [答案] C what = the thing that (is conceived to be…) .答案(A)中的代词it是多余的,因为what本身即已包含了先行词(the thing ) 和关系代词(that) .答案(B)中的关系代词that引导的从句不可以置于介词的后面。
  (5) Most of the food what elephants eat is brought to their mouths by their trunks. (93.10
  [答案] B what应改为that.此句已含有先行词food,不能再用关系代词what.
  5. 主句和从句
  解题要点 主语从句是TOEEL常考而中国考生又较陌生英文文法结构。有关主语从句的命题几乎全部集中在structure (1-15题)中。主语从句的特点是读起来有种头重脚轻的感觉,而且有两个谓语动词。连词That 引导的主语从句应特别留意。因为That 在句中没有任何意义,它只具有引导出主语从句的功能,因而很容易被忽略。
  全真例题分析
  (1) —— xenon could not from chemical compounds was once believed by scientists.
  (A) For
  (B) It was
  (C) That
  (D) While (91.1)
  [答案] C That引导的主语从句。其中第一个谓语动词could from 是从句的谓语,第二个系动was是主句的谓语。
  (2) —— to space travelers is high acceleration of deceleration forces.
  (A) Danger can be
  (B) They can be dangerous
  (C) What can be dangerous
  (D) While danger (93.1)
  [答案] C what引导的主语从句。What既是从句的连词,又是从句的主语。
  (3) —— has been a topic of continual geological research.
  (A) Did the continents originate
  (B) How did the continents originate
  (C) Have the continents originated
  (D) How the continents originated (91.1)
  [答案] D How 引导的主语从句。
  (4) —— progress helps to relieve scarcities is a fact accepted by economists.
  (A) Technological
  (B) That technological
  (C)Although technological
  (D)There is technological
  [答案] B. That 引导的主语从句,当连续读到两个谓语动词(e.g. Helps…is),而空格在句首,应首先考虑主语从句。这是主语从句典型的句子结构。
 

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