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平行结构及真题试题答题要点解析2011托福考试辅导

来源:: 魁网考试培训网 时间:2011-03-17 12:49
平行结构及真题试题答题要点解析2011托福考试辅导 1. 含并列连词and but or的平行结构 解题要点 当上述并列连词连接两项或多项对等成分时,这些成分必须同词性、同形式。特别注意出现三项以上(含三项)的并列成分,多是考试焦点。 全真例题分析 (1) Quartz

平行结构及真题试题答题要点解析2011托福考试辅导
1. 含并列连词and but or的平行结构
  解题要点 当上述并列连词连接两项或多项对等成分时,这些成分必须同词性、同形式。特别注意出现三项以上(含三项)的并列成分,多是考试焦点。
  全真例题分析
  (1) Quartz may be transparency, translucent, or opaque, and it may be colorless or colored (91.5)
  [答案] A 并列连词or连接三项,其中两项为形容词translucent与opaque,故(A)应用形容词transparent与之并列。
  (2) At the age of 94. Composer, conductor. Arranger. And acting Eva Jessye led her choral group in the first production of the opera porgy and Bess, written in 1935. (92.1)
  [答案] A 并列连词and连接四项表示身份职业的名词,故(A)动名词应改为actress。
  (3) Atrophy is a decrease in size of a cell, organ, tissues, or other part of the body such as (91.10)
  [答案] C 并列连词or连接四项名词结构,其中cell 和organ皆为单数形式,故(C)亦应改为单数tissue。
  (4) Direct mail advertising serves to acquaint customers with Products, alert them to new opportunities, and paving the way for other sales activities (93.1)
  [答案] C 并列连词and连接三项动宾结构,前两项均为动词原形,故(C)动名词亦应改为原形动词pave.
  (5) A majority of the reports received from people claiming to have seen the lengendaiy Loch Ness monster have proven to be mistakes, misconceptions, or they were being tricked. (93.10)
  [答案] D 并列连词or连接三项成分。前两项均为名词,故(D)不应出现句子结构,而应改为名词tricks与前面的mistakes和misconceptions平行。
  (6) The tongue is capable of many motions and configurations and plays vital rode in chewing, swallowed and speaking.
  [答案] D 并列连词and连接三个单词。其中两项均为动名词,故(D)亦应改为动名词swallowing。
  2. 比较级句型要求对比双方结构对等,比较范围相当。
  全真列题分析
  (1) Probably no man had more effcet on the daily lives of most people in the United States ------- Henry Ford. A pioneer in automobile production.
  (A) as was
  (B) than was
  (C) than did
  (D) as did (92.8)
  [答案] C 比较句型 more…than 要求比较的双方结构相等。前项是实义动词的过去时形式had,故选(C)than did与之平行。
  (2) The state of Maine generally has cooler temperatures than -------
  (A) there are most other states
  (B) most other states which have
  (C) most other states have
  (D) having most other states (93.10)
  [答案] C 这是标准的more…than比较句型。只有(C)的句子结构与相对比的前一项完全一致。
  (3) The annual worth of Utah*s manufacturing is greater than-------
  (A) that of its mining and farming combined
  (B) mining and farming combination
  (C) that mining and farming combined
  (D) of its combination mining and farming (91.8)
  [答案] A 此句比较的是utah的年产值(the annual worth) (A)中that即代替了the annual worth,故前后比较的范围,内容一致。
  (4) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than-------
  (A) the domestic marketer has
  (B) the domestic marketer does
  (C) those of the domestic marketer
  (D) that which has the domestic marketer (91.5)
  [答案] C 此句比较的是国际市场研究者与国内市场研究者的活动(the activities) 为避免同词重复,用(C)those来代替前面的名词the activities ,因而对比双方比较的范围是平行相等的。
  (5) Fructose is a monosaccharide sugar that is much sweeter -------
  (A) than cane sugar does
  (B) does cane sugar
  (C) cane sugar
  (D) than cane sugar (90.5)
  [答案] D 此比较句型前半部分主系表结构,后半部不可出现助动词does(答案A及B),但可省略系词,如(D)。
  3. 比较句型 the +比较级…the+比较级要求前后结构相等。
  全真例题分析
  (1) The flatter a hair appears under a microscope ------- wavier it is.
  (A) although
  (B) which
  (C) and
  (D) the (92.1)
  [答案] D The flatter a hair appears 与(D)the wavier it is 是完全对等的结构。
  比较级 主语 谓语动词 比较级 主语 系动词
  (2) The less the surface of the ground yields to the weight of the body of a runner, ------- to the body.
  (A) the stress it is greater
  (B) greater is the stress
  (C) greater stress is
  (D) the greater the stress (90.1)
  [答案] D The less the surface 与答案(D) the greater the stress 是完全对等的结构。
  4. 语意上的平行结构
  解题要点 有一些词和短语表达比较的概念,尽管不是比较级句型,但同样要求前后对比双方同形式,同性质。
  全真例题分析
  (1) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather of the deaf ------- of the telephone.
  (A) than inventing
  (B) than as the inventor
  (C) the invention
  (D) as the inventor (90.8)
  [答案] B 表示比较概念的短语would rather …than应使用平行结构。
  (2) Thomas Jefferson*s achievements as an architect rival his contributions ------- a politician.
  (A) such
  (B) more
  (C) as
  (D) than (90.1)
  [答案] C 动词rival (比得上)要求比较二项结构相等。
  (3) California*s agricultural supremacy dates from 1947. When its farm output first ------- any other state.
  (A) that exceeded
  (B) exceeded that
  (C) exceeded that of
  (D) that exceeded of (92.10)
  [答案] C 动词exceeded (超过)要求比较的内容相当。(C)代词that用以指代比较的内容“farm output”
  (4) It is common lcnowledge that a flash of lightning is seen before a clap of thunder heard . (93.5)
  [答案] D 连词 be fore用以引出先后发生的两个动作。从句意上看。这两个动作是对比关系,故应用平行结构。(D)改为a clap of thunder is heard ,与a flash of lightning is seen 相平衡。

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